Agritech

Hybrid Rice - The makings of the second green revolution

Good monsoon and the consequent record foodgrain output have brought cheers to the policy planners in the Krishi Bhavan. The euphoria may not last long considering the foodgrain requirement of 230-240 million tonnes when the population is now exceeding the billion mark.

Production and productivity of most foodgrains crops has increased substantially since the famous 'Green Revolution' more aptly dwarf 'Wheat Revolution' of the sixties followed by the development, production and marketing of superior high yielding varieties of Paddy and hybrids of coarse cereals like Maize, Sorghum and Millet.

While the Public Sector Seed Companies largely supplied the quality seeds of Wheat and Paddy, Private Sector Seed Industry did most of the work in coarse cereals.

With the production and productivity reaching a plateau in improved varieties of Wheat and Paddy, the country is yearning for another 'Green Revolution' and Hybrid Rice promises to be just that.

The work of Prof. Yuan Longping of Peoples Republic of China, considered father of 'Hybrid Rice', has resulted in the successful development and commercialisation of Hybrid Rice some twenty years ago. India, with 41 mha under Paddy cultivation is key player in Rice production in Asia, has also identified the possible heterosis- or Hybrid vigour which can contribute 15-25% yield increase over the currently available improved varieties of Paddy. Hybrid varieties yield an average of 6.6 tons per hectare compared to 5 tons per hectare in case of varieties. Rice grown in China is more of 'japonica' type that becomes sticky upon cooking. Such rice is not accepted in India and hence adaptation to suit local conditions is one of the research imperatives. Very few companies in India have been successful in bringing out suitable hybrid rice that suits local conditions and tastes.

Rice production in India was self sufficient in 60's, Productive in 70's, profitable in 80's and highly competitive at present. According to an estimate, for sustaining self-sufficiency, India must increase food production by at least 5 million tons and rice by 2 million tons every year. India is the second country next only to China to commercialise Hybrid rice. In India the labour to land ratio is high and also there is higher proportion of land in irrigated track. This offers better optimum opportunities to take advantage of hybrid rice technology.

In India the first rice hybrid was released in 1994. It was first introduced in the Southern states of India and was quite well accepted. Subsequently it was slowly extended to the Eastern parts of India. Progress to date indicates that the major private companies have produced sufficient seeds to plant 1,50,000 hectares. Hybrids with acceptable taste, moderately high head rice recovery, fluffy upon cooking, tolerant to major pests & diseases and high yield would be required in high volumes. Basmati rice hybrids with strong aroma, moderate head rice recovery, high grain elongation & fluffy upon cooking will be required in the premium market segment.

The medium early hybrid PAC-801 and full season maturing hybrid PAC-832 from Advanta Limited were successfully developed for irrigated rice growing areas and are popular in the market place. In Rice, the proportionate cost incurred on seed is 1/12th of the cost of cultivation. Additional cost on buying hybrid seed would be 1/3rd more than conventional high yielding varieties but will give 15-20% increase in grain yield. Advanta Limited has approximately 10 % of market share by volumes of seed sold in market place among private sector hybrids during 2001-2002.

PAC-801
  • High yield
  • Medium-early maturity
  • Highly adaptable
  • Less chaff
  • High tilering
  • Suitable for par-boiled areas
A high yielding medium-early, well adaptable hybrid
PAC-832
  • Very high yield
  • Full season maturity (140 days)
  • Strong culm, resistant to lodging
  • Good grain filling
  • Non-shattering of grains
  • Suitable for par-boiled areas
  • Tolerant to BPH
A very high yielding full season hybrid

Tips on package of practices

Seed Rate
6 Kgs / acre
Area reqd. for nursery for 1 acre 4 cents (160 sq. meters)
Manuring at nursery stage
Urea SSp MOP
4 Kgs 6 Kgs 2kGS
Transplant one seedling per hill at spacing 15 X 10-15 cms

Fertilizer at / after Transplanting

N
P
K
Zinc Sulphate
Kgs / acre
55
35
25
4
Basal
15
4 t/Ha FYM 30 days before transplanting
3 weeks
15
6 weeks
15
9 weeks
10

Plant protection

Butachlor - weedicide 3 -4 days after transplanting
2,4 - DE in case where leaf weeds are a problem 3 -4 days after transplanting
Bavistin 45 days
Agrimycin + Copper Oxy Chloride against Blight 60 days

Diseases 


Brown plant hopper

Bacterial Leaf Blight
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